作者:密宗华陵 来源:原创 时间:2019-09-20 阅读:3857768 次

新版qq更新后功能

国内现在还有哪些草原值得一去?

????(长图文预警,共54张图)你知道,谁才是中国草原的No. 1吗?很少有人知道,中国960万平方千米的土地上,超过40%的面积,都被一类神奇的植物覆盖。那便是草。▼1.中国地表草地覆盖情况,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所当草连绵成片,再加上一些灌木等植物,便构成了人们熟知的草原。从西藏到青海,从新疆到甘肃,从内蒙到东北,草原遍布中国西、北部。科尔沁草原、锡林郭勒草原、若尔盖草原、那曲草原或者巴音布鲁克草原,繁多而充满异域风情的名称,令人眼花缭乱。更别提逐个指出它们的位置,或者说出它们的故事了。但有一个却是例外——它的名称不仅不陌生,还几乎家喻户晓。那就是内蒙古大草原。它是中国最知名的草原,这里的蓝天、白云、碧草,骏马、群羊、飞鸟,敖包、牧歌、毡房,几乎就是中国草原风光的代名词。▼(请横屏观看)2.内蒙古大草原,图片来源@VCG它也是影响中国最为深重的草原。数千年来,草原上的游牧文明与中原的农耕文明冲突融合,共同构建了波澜壮阔的中国历史。▼3.霍林郭勒市可汗山,其上为成吉思汗和忽必烈的雕像,摄影师@邱会宁这是一片属于自由者的土地,也是一片属于勇敢者的家园。它的四大组成部分,乌兰察布、呼伦贝尔、科尔沁、锡林郭勒,更是接连四次创造了辉煌的草原传奇。01、诞生内蒙古地处内陆。每年夏季,从太平洋北上的东南季风到达此地时已如同强弩之末。▼4.本文所述的内蒙古草原包括阴山、燕山山脉以北、大兴安岭以西的内蒙古高原地带的草原,以及大兴安岭东南、内蒙古行政区内赤峰市、通辽市和兴安盟境内的草原;下图为内蒙古草原在中国的位置,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所而在大兴安岭、阴山、燕山等数条山脉的合围环抱之下,本已“衰弱”的夏季风翻山越岭,其中的水汽更是大幅减少。于是在这里,降水量自东南向西北逐级递减。即便在最为湿润的地区,年降水量也不过约400毫米;而到了草原西部,降水量更是降至150毫米左右,几乎接近荒漠地带。▼5.内蒙古草原周边的山脉和降雨量分布,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所东部和东南部山区林地的边缘,是草原中降水最为丰沛的区域。由于森林在此“一息尚存”,被称为疏林草原。草原和森林在这里,要么比肩而立、泾渭分明;▼6.呼伦贝尔的疏林草原,摄影师@Scorpion要么交织错落、形成斑块。▼7.乌兰布统草原,摄影师@宋新子随着降水减少、土层变薄,高大的乔木逐渐难以生存,直至最终销声匿迹。只留下更为耐旱的草本植物,铺满地表、连绵不绝。在年降水350-450毫米的地带,丛生的牧草可高达60厘米左右,形成茂密的草甸草原。▼8.草原的秋季,摄影师@刘辰疏林草原和草甸草原中,优质牧草占比可达50-80%,即便牛类等大型牲畜,也能在这里肆意疯吃猛长,堪称极为优质的天然牧场。▼9.乌兰布统草原中的牛群,摄影师@宋新子而当降水量降至200-350毫米时,面积更为广阔的典型草原便登场了。这里比草甸草原更加干旱牧草种类更少、高度更低,白色的羊群游弋其中,如同绿毯上雪白的花朵。▼10.牧民和羊群,一旁是大片的油菜花田,拍摄于呼伦贝尔大草原莫日格勒河附近,摄影师@邱会宁草本植物并非四季常青。随着冬去春来、夏秋更迭,草原便如同大地的调色盘,被用最粗犷的画笔刷上了不同的色彩。或是盛夏的绿——▼11.乌兰布统草原的夏季,摄影师@徐江华或是金秋的黄——▼(请横屏观看)12.草原的秋季,摄影师@刘辰与南方地区相比,草原气候更加干旱,土壤层也更浅更薄。在农业技术并不发达的过去,绝大多数地区并不适合耕种。然而这里遍布大量优质牧草,是发展畜牧业的风水宝地,于是养牛、牧马、放羊等成了这片土地上的人们赖以生存的生产方式。▼极目山川无尽头,风烟不断水长流。如何造物开天地,到此令人放马牛。——引自元代道教诗人丘处机《泺驿路》,该诗记录了他在草原上的见闻和安土重迁的农耕民族不同,草原上的人民不得不随着季节变化四处迁徙,以寻找合适的草场和水源。正所谓“居无定向,惟顺天时”,被称为“游牧民族”。——《西域番国志》▼(请横屏观看)13.图为坝上草原的牧民,摄影师@沈勇传统的游牧民族“靠天吃饭”,长途迁徙中更是困难重重,这意味着人们必须团结起来,才能在茫茫草原中觅得一线生机。于是“遇食同享,难则争赴”,成了游牧民族世代传承的个性。▼14.锡林郭勒草原上结伴而行的牧民们,摄影师@邱会宁他们性情豪爽、骁勇善战,不论是恶劣的自然环境,还是草原上原本的主人,都是他们必须直面的挑战。▼15.呼伦贝尔草原上突如其来的暴雨,摄影师@陈刚于是在漫长的岁月中,抗争、扩张、征服成了草原上的主旋律。四大草原上的风烟和往事,至今仍在猎猎西风中无声地回荡。▼(请横屏观看)16.坝上草原行进的马群,掀起了遮天蔽日的沙尘,摄影师@坝上团长02、阴山王庭在阴山山脉以北,国境线附近的戈壁沙漠以南,大青山和狼山之间便是广阔的乌兰察布草原。▼17.乌兰察布草原范围,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所草原南部是东西逶迤约1300千米的阴山山脉,它如同一面屏障,隔开了两个截然不同的世界。山脉以南,黄河蜿蜒而过,一路奔流向东直至注入渤海,催生了沃野千里的河套平原,而在山脉北麓则是干旱少雨的内蒙古高原。▼(请横屏观看)18.阴山山脉,摄影师@李琼这里没有良田千里,更没有林海浩瀚,却有名传千古的辽阔草原。▼敕勒川,阴山下。天似穹庐,笼盖四野。天苍苍,野茫茫。风吹草低见牛羊。——引自《敕勒歌》,有认为敕勒川即为今天内蒙古土默川平原一带直至今日,在乌兰察布草原南部,丘陵起伏的格根塔拉草原,平均海拔超过2000米的辉腾锡勒草原,依然保留着当年四野苍茫的草原风光。▼19.乌兰察布辉腾锡勒草原附近,摄影师@宋佳音也正是这片大草原,成就了中国历史上第一个由游牧民族建立的政权,匈奴国。从此结束了蒙古高原上部落间分而治之、各自为政的历史。公元前209年,匈奴历史上着名的霸主冒顿单于即位。此后的数年间,这位秉持“土地乃国之根本”的领袖带领匈奴铁骑东征西讨、所向披靡,繁盛一时的东胡、月氏、楼烦纷纷臣服于他们的弓矢之下,蒙古草原有史以来第一次有了统一的主人。其王庭则坐落于阴山一带,成为这个草原帝国的心脏。在匈奴领土最为广阔的时期,其疆域西至葱岭、东达辽河、北至贝加尔湖、南抵秦长城。▼20.匈奴国疆域,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所而在冒顿单于去世50余年后,西汉名将霍去病率大军北上,一路突袭、节节胜利,兵锋直逼瀚海附近,并在狼居胥山祭天封礼以示功绩,史称“封狼居胥”——有人认为,“瀚海”即为今日的贝加尔湖。▼21.西汉高阙塞遗址,是汉族人进入北方草原的咽喉,摄影师@黑桃k经此一役,匈奴再难与汉帝国抗衡,阴山王朝的传奇逐渐消逝在大草原的风中。▼是后匈奴远遁,而漠南无王庭——引自《汉书·匈奴传》03、走出呼伦贝尔在内蒙古所有草原中,声名最为显赫的莫过于呼伦贝尔草原。其位于内蒙古东北部,大兴安岭以西。疏林草原、草甸草原和典型草原在此均有分布。▼22.呼伦贝尔草原范围,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所这里也是内蒙古草原中,降水最为丰沛的地区。于是发源于周边山脉的河流,不断向低洼的草原上汇聚,一路蜿蜒盘桓,如同大地上散落的绸带。▼23.呼伦贝尔草原的莫日格勒河,摄影师@刘兆明河流不断汇聚,形成规模更为宏大的江河,最终注入遥远的大海。▼24.额尔古纳河,呼伦贝尔草原上的绝大多数河流最终都汇入额尔古纳河,到了下游即称为黑龙江,摄影师@刘辰而在更低洼处,凭借河流、降雨或泉水的补给,大大小小的湖泊海子就此诞生,星星点点地点缀在辽阔的草原上,其中最为闻名遐迩的,莫过于呼伦湖和贝尔湖。作为这片土地的“代言湖”,它们是呼伦贝尔草原上,最令人引以为傲的一双明珠,也是整个内蒙古草原上面积数一数二的天然湖泊。其中呼伦湖面积超过2000平方千米,居于所有草原湖泊之首,水面最广阔时与江苏的太湖相当。▼25.呼伦湖,当地人也称“达赉湖”,意为“像海一样的湖泊”,摄影师@唐僧 Frank有了众多河湖的补给,牧草的生长格外旺盛,种类甚至多达数百种,历史学家翦伯赞一度将其称为“自古以来最好的草原”。▼(请横屏观看)26.呼伦贝尔牧场,摄影师@李建斌而历史也证明,这片富饶肥美的原野成为了众多游牧民族的摇篮,他们在这里繁衍生息、武装军队,等待着征服更为广大的世界。其中一支为鲜卑人。他们原本世代居住在大兴安岭的山林中,直到公元1世纪,他们才跨过山岭、南迁“大泽”,来到水草丰美的呼伦贝尔草原。▼27.呼伦湖古时也称“大泽”;下图为呼伦贝尔草原上的牧民和羊群,图片来源@VCG相较于原始的捕鱼游猎,畜牧能够提供更丰富的食物来源,从而养活更多的人口。于是鲜卑人的部落不断壮大,终于在近百年后,迎来了属于他们的时代。彼时正值中原的东汉三国时期,汉室出兵击败北匈奴,曹操亲征大胜乌桓。待战事平息后,呼伦贝尔的西、南两方便留下了大片“空白”的土地,蠢蠢欲动的各鲜卑部族便开始了一次规模宏大的迁徙。▼(请横屏观看)28.牧民转场迁徙,摄影师@飞翔其中最为着名的一支,族姓拓跋,亦被称为“拓跋鲜卑”。他们从内蒙古东北端的呼伦贝尔出发,一路跋涉至东南部的赤峰一带,又向西辗转至阴山北麓的乌兰察布附近,全程相距数千里、历时超过百年,可谓“山高谷深、九难八阻”。▼29.据《魏书》记载,鲜卑人迁徙时曾遇大山挡路、无法行进,最后得到了似马非马的神兽领路,才得以脱困;据研究这个“神兽”便是今天呼伦贝尔鄂温克族驯养的驯鹿,摄影师@卢文而在这百余年里,中原大地上风云流转。西晋灭亡后,中原部族割据、政权更迭,可谓一片混乱、动荡不堪。然而乱世造英雄,公元386年,鲜卑人拓跋珪建国称帝,建立“北魏”政权。大约半个世纪后,北魏继匈奴王朝后再次一统北方部族,甚至一度越过黄河,迁都至河南洛阳,与退居南方的汉族王朝彼此对峙,开启了中国历史上的南北朝时代。▼30.北魏疆域,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所回首鲜卑人走出呼伦贝尔,千里迁徙、称霸中原的历程,不仅是一段民族崛起的传奇,更是一部文明融合的史诗。尽管此后北朝又历经多次分裂和易权,但直至隋朝立国,鲜卑一族统治中国北方已长达195年,成为第一个入主中原的游牧民族。自此,中原农耕文明和北方游牧文明有史以来第一次在中原大地上交融汇聚。▼31.洛阳龙门石窟,北魏时期开始开凿,一直持续到唐代,摄影师@邓国晖中华文明开始变得多元和鲜活,这种融合留下的种种痕迹,历经千年依然流传不衰。▼32.花木兰代父从军,讲述的是北魏抗击柔然的故事,图片来源@Wikimedia Commons04、科尔沁之子科尔沁草原的核心地区位于内蒙古的兴安盟、通辽市,以及赤峰市的东北部,其北邻呼伦贝尔、西接锡林郭勒,南抵河北、辽宁两省边界,是内蒙古唯一处在大兴安岭以东的草原。而草原东部,便是广袤肥沃的松嫩、辽河两大平原。▼33.科尔沁草原范围,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所山地、丘陵、平原在此交汇,土壤、植被类型丰富多样。▼34.阿尔山丰富的垂直自然带,摄影师@Derek Chen从阿尔山的疏林草原,到丘陵和平原地带的草甸及典型草原,牛羊遍地、河湖纵横。▼35.科尔沁草原代钦塔拉附近,摄影师@鹿钦平数千年来,众多游牧民族在此繁衍生息,从东胡、鲜卑、乌桓,到后期的女真、蒙古等等。但若要说扎根于此、立国于此、鼎盛于此的便只有契丹。早在南北朝时期,契丹便在内蒙古东南部西拉木伦河及老哈河流域悄然兴起。▼36.西拉木伦河,摄影师@张伊华(请横屏观看)其分支部族众多、内部相争不断,直到大唐盛世垂亡之时,野心勃勃的耶律阿保机终以雷霆之势一举统一契丹八部,并于公元916年建立契丹国,定都上京临潢府,即今天赤峰市巴林左旗附近。这便是22年后,雄踞北方的大辽国的前身。辽国极盛时疆域十分广阔,仅都城便建有5个之多,其中上京、中京均位于科尔沁草原上。▼37.辽中京位于今赤峰市宁城西部,西京、南京、东京分别位于山西大同、北京和辽宁辽阳附近,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所然而和多数游牧民族不同的是,握有松辽平原之利的辽国一方面主动接纳农耕文明,以弥补游牧生产的不足;▼二百馀年,城郭相望,田野益辟——引自《辽史》而另一方面,则在国家制度上“因俗而治”,分设北面官、南面官,以本族之制治契丹、以汉制待汉人,可以说早在1000多年前,便走上了“一国两制”的道路。他们实行科举、崇尚佛教,在与北宋和平止战的百余年间,贸易和文化的交流更是盛况空前。▼38.山西应县的佛宫寺释迦塔,高约67米,是中国最高的木塔,建于辽代,摄影师@王寰无论是人们口中抗击契丹、保家卫国的杨家将,还是金庸先生笔下侠气干云、两肋插刀的萧峰,关于契丹人与中原人的各种故事和想象,直至今日仍为人们津津乐道。05、锡林郭勒的辉煌在乌兰察布和科尔沁草原之间,内蒙古高原的中部地带,便是我国又一着名的草原,锡林郭勒草原。▼39.锡林郭勒草原范围,包括内蒙古锡林郭勒盟和河北省境内、燕山北部地区的草原,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所这里不如呼伦贝尔降水丰沛,大多数河流冲出山区后,还来不及汇成大江大河,便消失在草原深处。▼40.锡林郭勒草原的乌拉盖河,是一条内流河,摄影师@诺敏·何又或是止步于一片洼地中,形成点缀在河流末端的湖泊。▼41.锡林郭勒草原的达里诺尔,也称“达里湖”,摄影师@诺敏·何只有在锡林郭勒南部,流经坝上草原的滦河和永定河水系最终得以向南汇入海洋。▼(请横屏观看)42.滦河落日,摄影师@李杰而在滦河上游的正蓝旗草原上,有一片极为规整的矩形城墙遗址,尽管极目望去,仅剩一片断壁残垣,但其规划格局却一目了然,外城、皇城、宫城依次嵌套,轮廓清晰可见。其中宫城占地达32公顷,相当于北京故宫的一半,这便是古老的元上都遗址。▼43.元上都遗址,底图来源@Google Earth,星球研究所标注大约800年前,旅行家马可·波罗来到这里。此后在其着作中,便洋溢着对这座都城和宫殿难以掩饰的惊叹与赞美。▼上都是忽必烈汗建造的都城,他还用大理石和各种美丽的石头建造了一座令人叹为观止的宫殿,宫殿的殿堂和房间里都镀了黄金,富丽堂皇。——引自《马可·波罗游记》这就是元上都,强大富饶的蒙元帝国最早的都城。这支生于呼伦贝尔草原的强悍民族,最终在锡林郭勒草原上创造了无上的荣耀。时间回到公元1260年,距离成吉思汗统一蒙古,已过去了半个世纪。忽必烈接过祖父的衣钵,率领蒙古铁骑占领淮河以北,并在上都登上汗位。此后,为了更好地统治中原,他效仿汉制、遵用汉法,改“大蒙古国”为“大元”,将都城迁至今日的北京,是为“元大都”。而上都则作为夏季的都城。蒙古铁骑南征北战、东征西讨,几乎无坚不摧、所向披靡。元朝疆土之辽阔,超越了中国历史上的任何朝代,成为了中国第一个由游牧民族建立的大一统国家。▼44.元朝疆域,制图@张靖&巩向杰/星球研究所然而在元朝残酷的高压统治下,人民揭竿而起、奋起反抗。盛极一时的蒙元帝国迅速土崩瓦解,不到百年便走向了终结。但这片草原的故事还在持续。位于锡林郭勒草原南部的坝上一带,是极为优质的军马场,数以十万乃至百万计的良驹源源不断地从这里奔赴战场。在清朝初期的百余年间,帮助满族人谋定了新的盛世江山。▼45.坝上草原牧马,摄影师@坝上团长若从秦朝统一中国开始纵观中国2000余年的历史,不难看到,在第一个千年里农耕民族创造了无与伦比的成就,而在第二个千年中,则是由日渐强大的北方民族维持了近700年的辉煌。今天,所有铁马秋风已成过眼云烟,所有是非功过都付与苍烟落照。草原上不再需要金戈铁马,也不会因为文明冲突兵戎相见。当一切动荡归为平静,这里便是一片自由的土地。06、自由奔放的大地尽管在内蒙古大多数草原均地处高原,但地势起伏却极为平缓。在一望无际、坦荡如砥的大地上,几乎没有任何阻碍和束缚,一切都是“自由”的。风是“自由”的。即便来自海洋的季风难以触达,但面对呼啸而来的北风和西风,平坦的大地却毫无招架之力。在锡林郭勒南部、燕山以北的坝上草原,10米高空的平均风速可超过6米/秒,仅张北一县境内风电场,装机容量已达到233万千瓦,接近长江上葛洲坝水利枢纽的装机量。▼(请横屏观看)46.以上数据来源张北县政府;下图为张北风力发电场,摄影师@张伊华水是“自由”的。草原上几乎没有地形束缚,河流或肆意弯曲形成曲水,或漫溢四周形成沼泽和湿地。在众多曲折的草原河流中,尤以呼伦贝尔草原的莫日格勒河最为典型和着名。河道弯弯绕绕、九曲回肠,令人叹为观止。▼(请横屏观看)47.莫日格勒河,有人称其为“天下第一曲水”,摄影师@张强生命也是“自由”的。每到候鸟迁徙的季节,草原湖泊附近便热闹非凡。百余种候鸟到此休养生息、繁衍后代,其中不乏丹顶鹤、天鹅、鸿雁等珍稀鸟类。当它们成群结队飞上天空,场面蔚为壮观。▼48.呼伦贝尔草原湿地中的野鸭,摄影师@张德刚草原上遍布着生命的气息。为了适应辽阔的草原环境,有蹄类哺乳动物进化出了高超的奔跑技能,啮齿类哺乳动物在地下建立起庞大的洞穴王国。虎视眈眈的掠食者则隐藏在草丛深处,随时准备发动下一轮攻击。▼49.草原上的赤狐幼崽,摄影师。@徐永春人们的生活同样是自由的。对于世代居住于此的牧民,社会的发展和技术的进步让他们逐渐摆脱环境的限制,有了更加丰富的选择。人们可以保留古老的习俗,▼50.那达慕大会,那达慕是蒙古族的传统盛会,包括摔跤、赛马、套马、射箭等,摄影师@一墨可以延续传统的生活方式,▼51.遭遇“羊流”的汽车,拍摄于乌兰布统草原附近,摄影师@小强先森也可以选择走入城市,拥抱现代文明。而对于草原之外的人们,这里也不再是萧瑟的塞外边境,而是一片自由广阔的天地,等待着新时代的探索者去探寻。如今众多道路铺陈在草原之上,有宽阔平顺的柏油路。▼52.张北坝上草原天路,摄影师@朱金华也有错综复杂的小道,▼53.图片来源@VCG图片来源@VCG大草原上,往事随风。这片勇敢者的家园,这片自由者的土地,等待着人们去探寻。▼54.草原探索地图,制图@张靖/星球研究所你去过哪个草原?有什么探索故事和经验?欢迎在留言区与我们分享~全文完,感谢阅读。本文主要参考文献:【1】呼日勒沙.草原文化区域分布研究[M].呼和浩特:内蒙古教育出版社,2007.【2】张铁军. 北方草原游牧民族与中国历史[M]. 华文出版社, 2009.【3】乌日途,宋玉和,孟福盛,等.中国自然资源丛书(内蒙古卷)[M].北京:中国环境科学出版社,1995:146-153.【4】中国自然资源丛书编撰委员会. 中国自然资源丛书.草地卷[M]. 中国环境科学出版社, 1995.【5】张明华. 中国的草原[M]. 商务印书馆, 1995.

chang tu wen yu jing, gong 54 zhang tu ni zhi dao, shui cai shi zhong guo cao yuan de No. 1 ma? hen shao you ren zhi dao, zhong guo 960 wan ping fang qian mi de tu di shang, chao guo 40 de mian ji, dou bei yi lei shen qi de zhi wu fu gai. na bian shi cao. 1. zhong guo di biao cao di fu gai qing kuang, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo dang cao lian mian cheng pian, zai jia shang yi xie guan mu deng zhi wu, bian gou cheng le ren men shu zhi de cao yuan. cong xi zang dao qing hai, cong xin jiang dao gan su, cong nei meng dao dong bei, cao yuan bian bu zhong guo xi bei bu. ke er qin cao yuan xi lin guo le cao yuan ruo er gai cao yuan na qu cao yuan huo zhe ba yin bu lu ke cao yuan, fan duo er chong man yi yu feng qing de ming cheng, ling ren yan hua liao luan. geng bie ti zhu ge zhi chu ta men de wei zhi, huo zhe shuo chu ta men de gu shi le. dan you yi ge que shi li wai ta de ming cheng bu jin bu mo sheng, hai ji hu jia yu hu xiao. na jiu shi nei meng gu da cao yuan. ta shi zhong guo zui zhi ming de cao yuan, zhe li de lan tian bai yun bi cao, jun ma qun yang fei niao, ao bao mu ge zhan fang, ji hu jiu shi zhong guo cao yuan feng guang de dai ming ci. qing heng ping guan kan 2. nei meng gu da cao yuan, tu pian lai yuan VCG ta ye shi ying xiang zhong guo zui wei shen zhong de cao yuan. shu qian nian lai, cao yuan shang de you mu wen ming yu zhong yuan de nong geng wen ming chong tu rong he, gong tong gou jian le bo lan zhuang kuo de zhong guo li shi. 3. huo lin guo le shi ke han shan, qi shang wei cheng ji si han he hu bi lie de diao xiang, she ying shi qiu hui ning zhe shi yi pian shu yu zi you zhe de tu di, ye shi yi pian shu yu yong gan zhe de jia yuan. ta de si da zu cheng bu fen, wu lan cha bu hu lun bei er ke er qin xi lin guo le, geng shi jie lian si ci chuang zao le hui huang de cao yuan chuan qi. 01 dan sheng nei meng gu di chu nei lu. mei nian xia ji, cong tai ping yang bei shang de dong nan ji feng dao da ci di shi yi ru tong qiang nu zhi mo. 4. ben wen suo shu de nei meng gu cao yuan bao kuo yin shan yan shan shan mai yi bei da xing an ling yi xi de nei meng gu gao yuan di dai de cao yuan, yi ji da xing an ling dong nan nei meng gu xing zheng qu nei chi feng shi tong liao shi he xing an meng jing nei de cao yuan xia tu wei nei meng gu cao yuan zai zhong guo de wei zhi, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo er zai da xing an ling yin shan yan shan deng shu tiao shan mai de he wei huan bao zhi xia, ben yi" shuai ruo" de xia ji feng fan shan yue ling, qi zhong de shui qi geng shi da fu jian shao. yu shi zai zhe li, jiang shui liang zi dong nan xiang xi bei zhu ji di jian. ji bian zai zui wei shi run de di qu, nian jiang shui liang ye bu guo yue 400 hao mi er dao le cao yuan xi bu, jiang shui liang geng shi jiang zhi 150 hao mi zuo you, ji hu jie jin huang mo di dai. 5. nei meng gu cao yuan zhou bian de shan mai he jiang yu liang fen bu, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo dong bu he dong nan bu shan qu lin di de bian yuan, shi cao yuan zhong jiang shui zui wei feng pei de qu yu. you yu sen lin zai ci" yi xi shang cun", bei cheng wei shu lin cao yuan. cao yuan he sen lin zai zhe li, yao me bi jian er li jing wei fen ming 6. hu lun bei er de shu lin cao yuan, she ying shi Scorpion yao me jiao zhi cuo luo xing cheng ban kuai. 7. wu lan bu tong cao yuan, she ying shi song xin zi sui zhe jiang shui jian shao tu ceng bian bao, gao da de qiao mu zhu jian nan yi sheng cun, zhi zhi zui zhong xiao sheng ni ji. zhi liu xia geng wei nai han de cao ben zhi wu, pu man di biao lian mian bu jue. zai nian jiang shui 350450 hao mi de di dai, cong sheng de mu cao ke gao da 60 li mi zuo you, xing cheng mao mi de cao dian cao yuan. 8. cao yuan de qiu ji, she ying shi liu chen shu lin cao yuan he cao dian cao yuan zhong, you zhi mu cao zhan bi ke da 5080, ji bian niu lei deng da xing sheng chu, ye neng zai zhe li si yi feng chi meng zhang, kan cheng ji wei you zhi di tian ran mu chang. 9. wu lan bu tong cao yuan zhong de niu qun, she ying shi song xin zi er dang jiang shui liang jiang zhi 200350 hao mi shi, mian ji geng wei guang kuo de dian xing cao yuan bian deng chang le. zhe li bi cao dian cao yuan geng jia gan han mu cao zhong lei geng shao gao du geng di, bai se de yang qun you yi qi zhong, ru tong lv tan shang xue bai de hua duo. 10. mu min he yang qun, yi pang shi da pian de you cai hua tian, pai she yu hu lun bei er da cao yuan mo ri ge le he fu jin, she ying shi qiu hui ning cao ben zhi wu bing fei si ji chang qing. sui zhe dong qu chun lai xia qiu geng die, cao yuan bian ru tong da di de tiao se pan, bei yong zui cu guang de hua bi shua shang liao bu tong de se cai. huo shi sheng xia de lv 11. wu lan bu tong cao yuan de xia ji, she ying shi xu jiang hua huo shi jin qiu de huang qing heng ping guan kan 12. cao yuan de qiu ji, she ying shi liu chen yu nan fang di qu xiang bi, cao yuan qi hou geng jia gan han, tu rang ceng ye geng qian geng bao. zai nong ye ji shu bing bu fa da de guo qu, jue da duo shu di qu bing bu shi he geng zhong. ran er zhe li bian bu da liang you zhi mu cao, shi fa zhan xu mu ye de feng shui bao di, yu shi yang niu mu ma fang yang deng cheng le zhe pian tu di shang de ren men lai yi sheng cun de sheng chan fang shi. ji mu shan chuan wu jin tou, feng yan bu duan shui chang liu. ru he zao wu kai tian di, dao ci ling ren fang ma niu. yin zi yuan dai dao jiao shi ren qiu chu ji luo yi lu, gai shi ji lu le ta zai cao yuan shang de jian wen he an tu zhong qian de nong geng min zu bu tong, cao yuan shang de ren min bu de bu sui zhe ji jie bian hua si chu qian xi, yi xun zhao he shi de cao chang he shui yuan. zheng suo wei" ju wu ding xiang, wei shun tian shi", bei cheng wei" you mu min zu". xi yu fan guo zhi qing heng ping guan kan 13. tu wei ba shang cao yuan de mu min, she ying shi shen yong chuan tong de you mu min zu" kao tian chi fan", chang tu qian xi zhong geng shi kun nan chong chong, zhe yi wei zhe ren men bi xu tuan jie qi lai, cai neng zai mang mang cao yuan zhong mi de yi xian sheng ji. yu shi" yu shi tong xiang, nan ze zheng fu", cheng le you mu min zu shi dai chuan cheng de ge xing. 14. xi lin guo le cao yuan shang jie ban er xing de mu min men, she ying shi qiu hui ning ta men xing qing hao shuang xiao yong shan zhan, bu lun shi e lie de zi ran huan jing, hai shi cao yuan shang yuan ben de zhu ren, dou shi ta men bi xu zhi mian di tiao zhan. 15. hu lun bei er cao yuan shang tu ru qi lai de bao yu, she ying shi chen gang yu shi zai man chang de sui yue zhong, kang zheng kuo zhang zheng fu cheng le cao yuan shang de zhu xuan lv. si da cao yuan shang de feng yan he wang shi, zhi jin reng zai lie lie xi feng zhong wu sheng di hui dang. qing heng ping guan kan 16. ba shang cao yuan xing jin de ma qun, xian qi le zhe tian bi ri de sha chen, she ying shi ba shang tuan zhang 02 yin shan wang ting zai yin shan shan mai yi bei, guo jing xian fu jin de ge bi sha mo yi nan, da qing shan he lang shan zhi jian bian shi guang kuo de wu lan cha bu cao yuan. 17. wu lan cha bu cao yuan fan wei, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo cao yuan nan bu shi dong xi wei yi yue 1300 qian mi de yin shan shan mai, ta ru tong yi mian ping zhang, ge kai le liang ge jie ran bu tong de shi jie. shan mai yi nan, huang he wan yan er guo, yi lu ben liu xiang dong zhi zhi zhu ru bo hai, cui sheng le wo ye qian li de he tao ping yuan, er zai shan mai bei lu ze shi gan han shao yu de nei meng gu gao yuan. qing heng ping guan kan 18. yin shan shan mai, she ying shi li qiong zhe li mei you liang tian qian li, geng mei you lin hai hao han, que you ming chuan qian gu de liao kuo cao yuan. chi lei chuan, yin shan xia. tian shi qiong lu, long gai si ye. tian cang cang, ye mang mang. feng chui cao di jian niu yang. yin zi chi le ge, you ren wei chi lei chuan ji wei jin tian nei meng gu tu mo chuan ping yuan yi dai zhi zhi jin ri, zai wu lan cha bu cao yuan nan bu, qiu ling qi fu de ge gen ta la cao yuan, ping jun hai ba chao guo 2000 mi de hui teng xi lei cao yuan, yi ran bao liu zhe dang nian si ye cang mang de cao yuan feng guang. 19. wu lan cha bu hui teng xi lei cao yuan fu jin, she ying shi song jia yin ye zheng shi zhe pian da cao yuan, cheng jiu le zhong guo li shi shang di yi ge you you mu min zu jian li de zheng quan, xiong nu guo. cong ci jie shu le meng gu gao yuan shang bu luo jian fen er zhi zhi ge zi wei zheng de li shi. gong yuan qian 209 nian, xiong nu li shi shang zhu ming de ba zhu mo du chan yu ji wei. ci hou de shu nian jian, zhe wei bing chi" tu di nai guo zhi gen ben" de ling xiu dai ling xiong nu tie qi dong zheng xi tao suo xiang pi mi, fan sheng yi shi de dong hu rou zhi lou fan fen fen chen fu yu ta men de gong shi zhi xia, meng gu cao yuan you shi yi lai di yi ci you le tong yi de zhu ren. qi wang ting ze zuo luo yu yin shan yi dai, cheng wei zhe ge cao yuan di guo de xin zang. zai xiong nu ling tu zui wei guang kuo de shi qi, qi jiang yu xi zhi cong ling dong da liao he bei zhi bei jia er hu nan di qin chang cheng. 20. xiong nu guo jiang yu, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo er zai mo du chan yu qu shi 50 yu nian hou, xi han ming jiang huo qu bing lv da jun bei shang, yi lu tu xi jie jie sheng li, bing feng zhi bi han hai fu jin, bing zai lang ju xu shan ji tian feng li yi shi gong ji, shi cheng" feng lang ju xu" you ren ren wei," han hai" ji wei jin ri de bei jia er hu. 21. xi han gao que sai yi zhi, shi han zu ren jin ru bei fang cao yuan de yan hou, she ying shi hei tao k jing ci yi yi, xiong nu zai nan yu han di guo kang heng, yin shan wang chao de chuan qi zhu jian xiao shi zai da cao yuan de feng zhong. shi hou xiong nu yuan dun, er mo na mo wang ting yin zi han shu xiong nu chuan 03 zou chu hu lun bei er zai nei meng gu suo you cao yuan zhong, sheng ming zui wei xian he de mo guo yu hu lun bei er cao yuan. qi wei yu nei meng gu dong bei bu, da xing an ling yi xi. shu lin cao yuan cao dian cao yuan he dian xing cao yuan zai ci jun you fen bu. 22. hu lun bei er cao yuan fan wei, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo zhe li ye shi nei meng gu cao yuan zhong, jiang shui zui wei feng pei de di qu. yu shi fa yuan yu zhou bian shan mai de he liu, bu duan xiang di wa de cao yuan shang hui ju, yi lu wan yan pan huan, ru tong da di shang san luo de chou dai. 23. hu lun bei er cao yuan de mo ri ge le he, she ying shi liu zhao ming he liu bu duan hui ju, xing cheng gui mo geng wei hong da de jiang he, zui zhong zhu ru yao yuan de da hai. 24. e er gu na he, hu lun bei er cao yuan shang de jue da duo shu he liu zui zhong dou hui ru e er gu na he, dao le xia you ji cheng wei hei long jiang, she ying shi liu chen er zai geng di wa chu, ping jie he liu jiang yu huo quan shui de bu ji, da da xiao xiao de hu po hai zi jiu ci dan sheng, xing xing dian dian di dian zhui zai liao kuo de cao yuan shang, qi zhong zui wei wen ming xia er de, mo guo yu hu lun hu he bei er hu. zuo wei zhe pian tu di de" dai yan hu", ta men shi hu lun bei er cao yuan shang, zui ling ren yin yi wei ao de yi shuang ming zhu, ye shi zheng ge nei meng gu cao yuan shang mian ji shu yi shu er de tian ran hu po. qi zhong hu lun hu mian ji chao guo 2000 ping fang qian mi, ju yu suo you cao yuan hu po zhi shou, shui mian zui guang kuo shi yu jiang su de tai hu xiang dang. 25. hu lun hu, dang di ren ye cheng" da lai hu", yi wei" xiang hai yi yang de hu po", she ying shi tang seng Frank you le zhong duo he hu de bu ji, mu cao de sheng zhang ge wai wang sheng, zhong lei shen zhi duo da shu bai zhong, li shi xue jia jian bo zan yi du jiang qi cheng wei" zi gu yi lai zui hao de cao yuan". qing heng ping guan kan 26. hu lun bei er mu chang, she ying shi li jian bin er li shi ye zheng ming, zhe pian fu rao fei mei di yuan ye cheng wei le zhong duo you mu min zu de yao lan, ta men zai zhe li fan yan sheng xi wu zhuang jun dui, deng dai zhe zheng fu geng wei guang da de shi jie. qi zhong yi zhi wei xian bei ren. ta men yuan ben shi dai ju zhu zai da xing an ling de shan lin zhong, zhi dao gong yuan 1 shi ji, ta men cai kua guo shan ling nan qian" da ze", lai dao shui cao feng mei di hu lun bei er cao yuan. 27. hu lun hu gu shi ye cheng" da ze" xia tu wei hu lun bei er cao yuan shang de mu min he yang qun, tu pian lai yuan VCG xiang jiao yu yuan shi de bu yu you lie, xu mu neng gou ti gong geng feng fu de shi wu lai yuan, cong er yang huo geng duo de ren kou. yu shi xian bei ren de bu luo bu duan zhuang da, zhong yu zai jin bai nian hou, ying lai le shu yu ta men de shi dai. bi shi zheng zhi zhong yuan de dong han san guo shi qi, han shi chu bing ji bai bei xiong nu, cao cao qin zheng da sheng wu huan. dai zhan shi ping xi hou, hu lun bei er de xi nan liang fang bian liu xia le da pian" kong bai" de tu di, chun chun yu dong de ge xian bei bu zu bian kai shi le yi ci gui mo hong da de qian xi. qing heng ping guan kan 28. mu min zhuan chang qian xi, she ying shi fei xiang qi zhong zui wei zhu ming de yi zhi, zu xing tuo ba, yi bei cheng wei" tuo ba xian bei". ta men cong nei meng gu dong bei duan di hu lun bei er chu fa, yi lu ba she zhi dong nan bu de chi feng yi dai, you xiang xi zhan zhuan zhi yin shan bei lu de wu lan cha bu fu jin, quan cheng xiang ju shu qian li li shi chao guo bai nian, ke wei" shan gao gu shen jiu nan ba zu". 29. ju wei shu ji zai, xian bei ren qian xi shi ceng yu da shan dang lu wu fa xing jin, zui hou de dao le shi ma fei ma de shen shou ling lu, cai de yi tuo kun ju yan jiu zhe ge" shen shou" bian shi jin tian hu lun bei er e wen ke zu xun yang de xun lu, she ying shi lu wen er zai zhe bai yu nian li, zhong yuan da di shang feng yun liu zhuan. xi jin mie wang hou, zhong yuan bu zu ge ju zheng quan geng die, ke wei yi pian hun luan dong dang bu kan. ran er luan shi zao ying xiong, gong yuan 386 nian, xian bei ren tuo ba gui jian guo cheng di, jian li" bei wei" zheng quan. da yue ban ge shi ji hou, bei wei ji xiong nu wang chao hou zai ci yi tong bei fang bu zu, shen zhi yi du yue guo huang he, qian du zhi he nan luo yang, yu tui ju nan fang de han zu wang chao bi ci dui zhi, kai qi le zhong guo li shi shang de nan bei chao shi dai. 30. bei wei jiang yu, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo hui shou xian bei ren zou chu hu lun bei er, qian li qian xi cheng ba zhong yuan de li cheng, bu jin shi yi duan min zu jue qi de chuan qi, geng shi yi bu wen ming rong he de shi shi. jin guan ci hou bei chao you li jing duo ci fen lie he yi quan, dan zhi zhi sui chao li guo, xian bei yi zu tong zhi zhong guo bei fang yi chang da 195 nian, cheng wei di yi ge ru zhu zhong yuan de you mu min zu. zi ci, zhong yuan nong geng wen ming he bei fang you mu wen ming you shi yi lai di yi ci zai zhong yuan da di shang jiao rong hui ju. 31. luo yang long men shi ku, bei wei shi qi kai shi kai zao, yi zhi chi xu dao tang dai, she ying shi deng guo hui zhong hua wen ming kai shi bian de duo yuan he xian huo, zhe zhong rong he liu xia de zhong zhong hen ji, li jing qian nian yi ran liu chuan bu shuai. 32. hua mu lan dai fu cong jun, jiang shu de shi bei wei kang ji rou ran de gu shi, tu pian lai yuan Wikimedia Commons04 ke er qin zhi zi ke er qin cao yuan de he xin di qu wei yu nei meng gu de xing an meng tong liao shi, yi ji chi feng shi de dong bei bu, qi bei lin hu lun bei er xi jie xi lin guo le, nan di he bei liao ning liang sheng bian jie, shi nei meng gu wei yi chu zai da xing an ling yi dong de cao yuan. er cao yuan dong bu, bian shi guang mao fei wo de song nen liao he liang da ping yuan. 33. ke er qin cao yuan fan wei, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo shan di qiu ling ping yuan zai ci jiao hui, tu rang zhi bei lei xing feng fu duo yang. 34. a er shan feng fu de chui zhi zi ran dai, she ying shi Derek Chen cong a er shan de shu lin cao yuan, dao qiu ling he ping yuan di dai de cao dian ji dian xing cao yuan, niu yang bian di he hu zong heng. 35. ke er qin cao yuan dai qin ta la fu jin, she ying shi lu qin ping shu qian nian lai, zhong duo you mu min zu zai ci fan yan sheng xi, cong dong hu xian bei wu huan, dao hou qi de nv zhen meng gu deng deng. dan ruo yao shuo zha gen yu ci li guo yu ci ding sheng yu ci de bian zhi you qi dan. zao zai nan bei chao shi qi, qi dan bian zai nei meng gu dong nan bu xi la mu lun he ji lao ha he liu yu qiao ran xing qi. 36. xi la mu lun he, she ying shi zhang yi hua qing heng ping guan kan qi fen zhi bu zu zhong duo nei bu xiang zheng bu duan, zhi dao da tang sheng shi chui wang zhi shi, ye xin bo bo de ye lv a bao ji zhong yi lei ting zhi shi yi ju tong yi qi dan ba bu, bing yu gong yuan 916 nian jian li qi dan guo, ding du shang jing lin huang fu, ji jin tian chi feng shi ba lin zuo qi fu jin. zhe bian shi 22 nian hou, xiong ju bei fang de da liao guo de qian shen. liao guo ji sheng shi jiang yu shi fen guang kuo, jin du cheng bian jian you 5 ge zhi duo, qi zhong shang jing zhong jing jun wei yu ke er qin cao yuan shang. 37. liao zhong jing wei yu jin chi feng shi ning cheng xi bu, xi jing nan jing dong jing fen bie wei yu shan xi da tong bei jing he liao ning liao yang fu jin, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo ran er he duo shu you mu min zu bu tong de shi, wo you song liao ping yuan zhi li de liao guo yi fang mian zhu dong jie na nong geng wen ming, yi mi bu you mu sheng chan de bu zu er bai yu nian, cheng guo xiang wang, tian ye yi pi yin zi liao shi er ling yi fang mian, ze zai guo jia zhi du shang" yin su er zhi", fen she bei mian guan nan mian guan, yi ben zu zhi zhi zhi qi dan yi han zhi dai han ren, ke yi shuo zao zai 1000 duo nian qian, bian zou shang le" yi guo liang zhi" de dao lu. ta men shi xing ke ju chong shang fo jiao, zai yu bei song he ping zhi zhan de bai yu nian jian, mao yi he wen hua de jiao liu geng shi sheng kuang kong qian. 38. shan xi ying xian de fu gong si shi jia ta, gao yue 67 mi, shi zhong guo zui gao de mu ta, jian yu liao dai, she ying shi wang huan wu lun shi ren men kou zhong kang ji qi dan bao jia wei guo de yang jia jiang, hai shi jin yong xian sheng bi xia xia qi gan yun liang lei cha dao de xiao feng, guan yu qi dan ren yu zhong yuan ren de ge zhong gu shi he xiang xiang, zhi zhi jin ri reng wei ren men jin jin le dao. 05 xi lin guo le de hui huang zai wu lan cha bu he ke er qin cao yuan zhi jian, nei meng gu gao yuan de zhong bu di dai, bian shi wo guo you yi zhu ming de cao yuan, xi lin guo le cao yuan. 39. xi lin guo le cao yuan fan wei, bao kuo nei meng gu xi lin guo le meng he he bei sheng jing nei yan shan bei bu di qu de cao yuan, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo zhe li bu ru hu lun bei er jiang shui feng pei, da duo shu he liu chong chu shan qu hou, hai lai bu ji hui cheng da jiang da he, bian xiao shi zai cao yuan shen chu. 40. xi lin guo le cao yuan de wu la gai he, shi yi tiao nei liu he, she ying shi nuo min he you huo shi zhi bu yu yi pian wa di zhong, xing cheng dian zhui zai he liu mo duan di hu po. 41. xi lin guo le cao yuan de da li nuo er, ye cheng" da li hu", she ying shi nuo min he zhi you zai xi lin guo le nan bu, liu jing ba shang cao yuan de luan he he yong ding he shui xi zui zhong de yi xiang nan hui ru hai yang. qing heng ping guan kan 42. luan he luo ri, she ying shi li jie er zai luan he shang you de zheng lan qi cao yuan shang, you yi pian ji wei gui zheng de ju xing cheng qiang yi zhi, jin guan ji mu wang qu, jin sheng yi pian duan bi can yuan, dan qi gui hua ge ju que yi mu liao ran, wai cheng huang cheng gong cheng yi ci qian tao, lun kuo qing xi ke jian. qi zhong gong cheng zhan di da 32 gong qing, xiang dang yu bei jing gu gong de yi ban, zhe bian shi gu lao de yuan shang dou yi zhi. 43. yuan shang dou yi zhi, di tu lai yuan Google Earth, xing qiu yan jiu suo biao zhu da yue 800 nian qian, lv hang jia ma ke bo luo lai dao zhe li. ci hou zai qi zhu zuo zhong, bian yang yi zhe dui zhe zuo du cheng he gong dian nan yi yan shi de jing tan yu zan mei. shang dou shi hu bi lie han jian zao de du cheng, ta hai yong da li shi he ge zhong mei li de shi tou jian zao le yi zuo ling ren tan wei guan zhi de gong dian, gong dian de dian tang he fang jian li dou du le huang jin, fu li tang huang. yin zi ma ke bo luo you ji zhe jiu shi yuan shang dou, qiang da fu rao de meng yuan di guo zui zao de du cheng. zhe zhi sheng yu hu lun bei er cao yuan de qiang han min zu, zui zhong zai xi lin guo le cao yuan shang chuang zao liao wu shang de rong yao. shi jian hui dao gong yuan 1260 nian, ju li cheng ji si han tong yi meng gu, yi guo qu le ban ge shi ji. hu bi lie jie guo zu fu de yi bo, shuai ling meng gu tie qi zhan ling huai he yi bei, bing zai shang dou deng shang han wei. ci hou, wei le geng hao di tong zhi zhong yuan, ta xiao fang han zhi zun yong han fa, gai" da meng gu guo" wei" da yuan", jiang du cheng qian zhi jin ri de bei jing, shi wei" yuan da du". er shang dou ze zuo wei xia ji de du cheng. meng gu tie qi nan zheng bei zhan dong zheng xi tao, ji hu wu jian bu cui suo xiang pi mi. yuan chao jiang tu zhi liao kuo, chao yue le zhong guo li shi shang de ren he chao dai, cheng wei le zhong guo di yi ge you you mu min zu jian li de da yi tong guo jia. 44. yuan chao jiang yu, zhi tu zhang jing amp gong xiang jie xing qiu yan jiu suo ran er zai yuan chao can ku de gao ya tong zhi xia, ren min jie gan er qi fen qi fan kang. sheng ji yi shi de meng yuan di guo xun su tu beng wa jie, bu dao bai nian bian zou xiang le zhong jie. dan zhe pian cao yuan de gu shi hai zai chi xu. wei yu xi lin guo le cao yuan nan bu de ba shang yi dai, shi ji wei you zhi di jun ma chang, shu yi shi wan nai zhi bai wan ji de liang ju yuan yuan bu duan di cong zhe li ben fu zhan chang. zai qing chao chu qi de bai yu nian jian, bang zhu man zu ren mou ding le xin de sheng shi jiang shan. 45. ba shang cao yuan mu ma, she ying shi ba shang tuan zhang ruo cong qin chao tong yi zhong guo kai shi zong guan zhong guo 2000 yu nian de li shi, bu nan kan dao, zai di yi ge qian nian li nong geng min zu chuang zao liao wu yu lun bi de cheng jiu, er zai di er ge qian nian zhong, ze shi you ri jian qiang da de bei fang min zu wei chi le jin 700 nian de hui huang. jin tian, suo you tie ma qiu feng yi cheng guo yan yun yan, suo you shi fei gong guo dou fu yu cang yan luo zhao. cao yuan shang bu zai xu yao jin ge tie ma, ye bu hui yin wei wen ming chong tu bing rong xiang jian. dang yi qie dong dang gui wei ping jing, zhe li bian shi yi pian zi you de tu di. 06 zi you ben fang de da di jin guan zai nei meng gu da duo shu cao yuan jun di chu gao yuan, dan di shi qi fu que ji wei ping huan. zai yi wang wu ji tan dang ru di de da di shang, ji hu mei you ren he zu ai he shu fu, yi qie dou shi" zi you" de. feng shi" zi you" de. ji bian lai zi hai yang de ji feng nan yi chu da, dan mian dui hu xiao er lai de bei feng he xi feng, ping tan de da di que hao wu zhao jia zhi li. zai xi lin guo le nan bu yan shan yi bei de ba shang cao yuan, 10 mi gao kong de ping jun feng su ke chao guo 6 mi miao, jin zhang bei yi xian jing nei feng dian chang, zhuang ji rong liang yi da dao 233 wan qian wa, jie jin chang jiang shang ge zhou ba shui li shu niu de zhuang ji liang. qing heng ping guan kan 46. yi shang shu ju lai yuan zhang bei xian zheng fu xia tu wei zhang bei feng li fa dian chang, she ying shi zhang yi hua shui shi" zi you" de. cao yuan shang ji hu mei you di xing shu fu, he liu huo si yi wan qu xing cheng qu shui, huo man yi si zhou xing cheng zhao ze he shi di. zai zhong duo qu zhe de cao yuan he liu zhong, you yi hu lun bei er cao yuan de mo ri ge le he zui wei dian xing he zhu ming. he dao wan wan rao rao jiu qu hui chang, ling ren tan wei guan zhi. qing heng ping guan kan 47. mo ri ge le he, you ren cheng qi wei" tian xia di yi qu shui", she ying shi zhang qiang sheng ming ye shi" zi you" de. mei dao hou niao qian xi de ji jie, cao yuan hu po fu jin bian re nao fei fan. bai yu zhong hou niao dao ci xiu yang sheng xi fan yan hou dai, qi zhong bu fa dan ding he tian e hong yan deng zhen xi niao lei. dang ta men cheng qun jie dui fei shang tian kong, chang mian wei wei zhuang guan. 48. hu lun bei er cao yuan shi di zhong de ye ya, she ying shi zhang de gang cao yuan shang bian bu zhe sheng ming de qi xi. wei le shi ying liao kuo de cao yuan huan jing, you ti lei bu ru dong wu jin hua chu le gao chao de ben pao ji neng, nie chi lei bu ru dong wu zai di xia jian li qi pang da de dong xue wang guo. hu shi dan dan de lue shi zhe ze yin cang zai cao cong shen chu, sui shi zhun bei fa dong xia yi lun gong ji. 49. cao yuan shang de chi hu you zai, she ying shi. xu yong chun ren men de sheng huo tong yang shi zi you de. dui yu shi dai ju zhu yu ci de mu min, she hui de fa zhan he ji shu de jin bu rang ta men zhu jian bai tuo huan jing de xian zhi, you le geng jia feng fu de xuan ze. ren men ke yi bao liu gu lao de xi su, 50. na da mu da hui, na da mu shi meng gu zu de chuan tong sheng hui, bao kuo shuai jiao sai ma tao ma she jian deng, she ying shi yi mo ke yi yan xu chuan tong de sheng huo fang shi, 51. zao yu" yang liu" de qi che, pai she yu wu lan bu tong cao yuan fu jin, she ying shi xiao qiang xian sen ye ke yi xuan ze zou ru cheng shi, yong bao xian dai wen ming. er dui yu cao yuan zhi wai de ren men, zhe li ye bu zai shi xiao se de sai wai bian jing, er shi yi pian zi you guang kuo de tian di, deng dai zhe xin shi dai de tan suo zhe qu tan xun. ru jin zhong duo dao lu pu chen zai cao yuan zhi shang, you kuan kuo ping shun de bai you lu. 52. zhang bei ba shang cao yuan tian lu, she ying shi zhu jin hua ye you cuo zong fu za de xiao dao, 53. tu pian lai yuan VCG tu pian lai yuan VCG da cao yuan shang, wang shi sui feng. zhe pian yong gan zhe de jia yuan, zhe pian zi you zhe de tu di, deng dai zhe ren men qu tan xun. 54. cao yuan tan suo di tu, zhi tu zhang jing xing qiu yan jiu suo ni qu guo nei ge cao yuan? you shen me tan suo gu shi he jing yan? huan ying zai liu yan qu yu wo men fen xiang quan wen wan, gan xie yue du. ben wen zhu yao can kao wen xian: 1 hu ri lei sha. cao yuan wen hua qu yu fen bu yan jiu M. hu he hao te: nei meng gu jiao yu chu ban she, 2007. 2 zhang tie jun. bei fang cao yuan you mu min zu yu zhong guo li shi M. hua wen chu ban she, 2009. 3 wu ri tu, song yu he, meng fu sheng, deng. zhong guo zi ran zi yuan cong shu nei meng gu juan M. bei jing: zhong guo huan jing ke xue chu ban she, 1995: 146153. 4 zhong guo zi ran zi yuan cong shu bian zhuan wei yuan hui. zhong guo zi ran zi yuan cong shu cao di juan M. zhong guo huan jing ke xue chu ban she, 1995. 5 zhang ming hua. zhong guo de cao yuan M. shang wu yin shu guan, 1995.

当前文章:http://www.khwygl.com/h815rx/11464-150314-74863.html

发布时间:02:18:31


{相关文章}

孙晨亮:鲍威尔或引发市场巨震 晚间黄金原油行情布局

????

  贵金属基本面与技术香港年轻示威者_前沿新闻网面解读:

新浪外汇讯,黄金市场资讯:8月22日,10年期美国国债收益率从高点回落。在令人沮丧的PMI数据公布之后,美元指数看起来会出现温和的下跌,但美联储鹰派发言帮助美元指数从低点反弹。今日,几位FOMC成员将在杰克逊霍尔全球央行年会研讨会现场进行电视采访。晚些时候,美联储主席鲍威尔将在格林尼治标准时间14点(北京时间22点)发表准备好的讲话。现货黄金价格在今早跌至9天以来的最低水平1492美元,不过在午盘出现反弹,现在似乎在1500美元以下盘整。

  黄金技术面解析:4小时级别:国际金价处于震荡下跌的趋势中;MACD信号趋于弱势,KDJ死叉,布林线轨道收口且向下倾斜,看跌云带展开,后市偏下行延续。上方受到布林线中轨压制及60日均线的压力,以及布林线上轨1510附近压力,若意外顶破该阻力,则增加后市看涨力度;进一步阻力分别在1515a景区云台山摘牌警告_前沿新闻网7和1522附近。不过目前,国际黄金价格后市偏向震荡下探,下方重点关注1492附近支撑,进一步则关注100日均线处支撑1488美元,看涨观点将在此上方获得买盘推力,若失守该支撑,则增加短线看空信号。金价有望打开较大的下行空间;进一步支撑在1471美元。

  黄金建议仅供参考,以实时发布策略为准:

  多单计划:金价1490-1487进场,止损4个点,目标1502-1504.

  空单计划:金价1504-1502进场,止损4个点,目标1487-1490.

  美原油基本面与技术面解读:

  原油市场资讯:晚间投资人在等待美联储的最新货币政策。鲍威尔将于稍晚在杰克森霍尔的全球央行行长年会的演说,预计会就美联储今年是否将第二度降息以提振经济提供些许线索。鲍威尔在杰克逊霍尔会议的讲话对油价至为重新浪财经离岸美元对人民币美国板_前沿新闻网要,因美联储的宽松货币政策的信号影响美元走势。美联储降息有助改善通胀水平、并刺激经济扩张,从而令全球经济状态出现好转,提振原油需求前景。此外,降息也会令美元走低,降低投资者购买原油的机会成本,进一步利好油价上行。

  原油技术面解析:原油日线级别本周也是走震荡了,原油日线本周维持区间54.2-57.2震荡整理,日线上本周收取两阳两阴,日线上目前运行在布林带中轨,短期日线获得55整数关口支撑日线运行在布林带中轨,布林带持平运行。附图MACD在零轴下方金叉运行,红色动能柱,指标弱势稍强。四小时K线运行在布林带中轨下方,布林带开口有微微张口偏下跌。

  日内原油最低触及55.2低点获得,今日周五不跌至54.8下方去,还是认为看好反弹。原油的行情趋势主要还是偏向于震荡或者说是震荡上行的趋势,不过认为若是油价涨势想要扩大,那么油价必须突破上周高点57.47,只有这一位置被上破,油价才能打开另外的上行空间;晚间重点关54.8生死线不破做反弹,破位顺势跟空下看53.7。

  原油建议仅供参考,以实时发布策略为准:

  多单计划运营商三大系统_前沿新闻网:油价54.0-54.2进场,止损0.4个点,目标56.2-56.4.

  空单计划:油价56.4-56.2进场,止损0.4个点,目标54.0-54.2.肖战被私生摸手_前沿新闻网

责任编辑:陈平 足球竞彩倍投计划10mate价格_前沿新闻网